What is Glaucoma: Types, Causes, Symptoms

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Glaucoma: Types, Causes, Symptoms. One of the very common eye conditions that develop in both men and women is Glaucoma.

When the optic nerve of the eye gets damaged or dries out for a certain reason, it creates serious eye issues. People become blind mainly because of glaucoma. Mostly, people above the age of 60 are at risk. But this may occur at any age.

Identifying Glaucoma

Glaucoma is of many forms and not all the forms have clear signs and symptoms for a person to understand. This is why many fail to detect the issue and it becomes too late to treat the eye. Since the optic nerve is a vital part of the eye, its damage leads to serious and gradual effect over time. One will start noticing the problems with weaker vision.

This particular condition cannot be detected at an early stage. Therefore it is absolutely necessary to see an ophthalmologist for a thorough checkup of the eye. With a proper diagnosis, glaucoma can be detected and treated before it permanently damages the eye. It is thus always advisable to see a doctor who has profound experience in glaucoma patients. In case you are living in Delhi you can find many reputed glaucoma specialists in Delhi.

Common Types of Glaucoma

  • Open-angle Glaucoma- this is the most common type and it forms when the trabecular meshwork gets partially blocked. This creates pressure which increases over time and damages the optic nerve to the point of complete blindness.
  • Angle Closure Glaucoma- in this type of condition the iris bulges out and blocks the drainage angle that is formed by the cornea and iris. When this happens the fluid does not circulate properly throughout the eye, causing glaucoma. This kind of glaucoma may be acute or chronic. It requires fast medical treatment without any delay.
  • Normal-tension Glaucoma- this condition happens when the optic nerve gets damaged for reasons unknown while the eye pressure remains normal. This could be because of the sensitive optic nerve or due to the limitation of blood flow that forms glaucoma.
  • Pigmentary Glaucoma- this is a condition in which pigment granules from your iris blocks the drainage channels. This overtime leads to glaucoma, blocking the fluid movement.

What Are The Causes Of Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is caused when the optic nerve gets damaged. This damage could be from anything. And not all the causes are clear to the doctors even today. The most common reason why glaucoma forms in the eye area is due to the elevated eye pressure as a result of fluid build-up. This, in turn, blocks the normal circulation of the fluid through the trabecular meshwork. As the drainage stops functioning normally due to the blockage the eye pressure increases, causing glaucoma.

Symptoms To Notice

The signs and symptoms are not always clear in glaucoma. It takes time to figure out the signs. Also, the symptoms vary depending upon the type and stage.

For open-angle glaucoma the symptoms are:

  • Peripheral blind spots in both eyes.
  • In advanced stages people experience tunnel vision.

For acute angle-closure glaucoma, the symptoms are:

  • Headache from moderate to severe.
  • Pain in the eye frequently
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Blurry vision
  • Halos around light

For chronic angle-closure glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma symptoms are slow and one may not get the symptoms before the advanced stage or when the person starts to lose vision.

Regular eye examinations are the best way to prevent glaucoma. Eye checkup after every three to five years is essential, especially for people who are above the age of 40. Also, it is important to check the family history. Glaucoma tends to be hereditary.